General Knowledge

TIMELINE:WORLDHISTORY


BC
c. 9000  :   The development of agriculture.
c. 3500 : A number of small cities, centres of the world’s    first civilisation, appeared in Sumer, the lower part of the Tigris- Euphrates Valley (present Iraq).
c. 3500 : The Sumerians invented the first form of writing. It was later simplified to produce wedge-shaped cuneiform writing, which spread throughout the Middle East.
c. 2500 : The Pyramids and Great Sphinx were built in Giza, Egypt.
c. 2500 : The Indus Valley civilisation began to flourish in the cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in what is now Pakistan.
c. 2500 : The Epic of Gilgamesh and the Epic of Creation, the oldest epic poems in world literature, were written in Mesopotamia.
c. 2500-1100: The Minoan civilisation on the island of Crete rose and fell.
2300s : Sargon of Akkad conquered the Sumerians and united all Mesopotamia under his rule, creating the world’s first empire.
c. 1792-1750 : Babylonia flourished under King Hammurabi.
c. 1700 : Code of Hammurabi, one of the first law codes, was drawn up.
c.1500-1000:The Aryans of central Asia came to In- dia.
c. 1400  :   The making of iron began.

500 :  The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were  built.
400 : Hippocrates, the father of Medicine showed that diseases have natural causes.
399 : Socrates was forced to commit suicide by drinking hemlock, a poison.
44    :   Julius Caesar of Rome was assassinated.
27  :   Augustus became the first Roman em-   peror.
4    :   Birth of Jesus Christ.
AD
1    :   The Chinese invented paper.
250 : The Mayans developed an advanced civi- lization in Central America and Mexico.
313 : Constantineissued the Edictof Milan, which granted freedom of worship to Christians of the Roman Empire.
395 : The Roman Empire split into the East Ro- man, or Byzantine Empire and the West Roman Empire.
300 : The Ghana Empire, the first great black empire in Western Africa, existed as a trad- ing state.
570    :   Birth of Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam.
610 : Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, began preaching.
622    :   Muhammad, prophet of Islam, fled from


776    :    The first recorded Olympic Games were held in Greece.        Mecca to Medina. His flight, called the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic
c. 550   :    Cyrus the Great established the Persian Empire.    
750    :    calendar.
The Abbasids became the  Caliphs  of
509    :    The people of Rome revolted against their Etruscan rulers and established a repub-    
800    :    the Islamic world.
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, ruler
    lic.        of the Franks, emperor of the Romans.


988 : Vladimir I converted the Russians to Christianity.
1054 : Rivalries between the church in Rome and the church in Constantinople resulted in their separation as the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Churches, respectively.
1110 : The Chinese invented the magnetic com- pass.
1279    : The Mongols gained control of all China.
1300s   :   The Renaissance began in Italy.
1400-1450s : The first book printed in Europe with movable type appeared in the mid-1400s.
1453 : The Ottoman Turks captured Constanti- nople (Istanbul) and overthrew the Byz- antine Empire.
1492    :   Columbus discovered America.
1498 : Vasco da Gama discovered sea route to India.
1500s : The Reformation led to the birth of Protestantism.
1519-1521: Ferdinand Magellan commanded the first globe-circling voyage, completed in 1522 after his death.
1526 : Babar, a Muslim prince, invaded India and founded the Mughal Empire.
1543  :  Nicolas Copernicus proposed that the sun was the centre of the universe.
1588 : The Royal Navy of England defeated the Spanish Armada, establishing England as a great naval power.
1776 : The 13 American colonies adopted the Dec- laration of Independence, establishing the United States of America.
1789    :   The French Revolution began.
1815 : Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo, endinghis attemptto rule Europe.
1858 : Great Britain took over the rule of India  from the East India Company after the In- dian Revolt.
1869    :   The Suez Canal opened.
1871 :  Germany became united under the Prus- sian king, who ruled the new empire as Kaiser Wilhelm I.
1901 : Trans-Siberian Railway opened. Marconi sends first wireless message. Sweden awards first Nobel Prizes.
1902 : First Siamese twins Barnam and Bailey cir- cus twins separated. Thomas Alva Edison invents a new electrical storage battery. Lon- don School of Economics and Political Sci- ence opened. ‘Cedric’, the worldlargest ship (21,000 tons) built. First Trans-Atlantic tel- egraph message sent.
1903 : Marie Curie becomes the first woman to  win a Nobel Prize (Physics). Wilber and Orville Wright fly their ‘Flyer’ at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1904 : Henry Royce produces first motor car, a 10hp 2-cylinder model.
1905 : Frenchman Alfred Binet invents intelli- gence tests. Albert Einstein says time and speed are relative. Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen lands at Alaska and finds magnetic pole.
1906 : “HMS Dreadnought”, world’s most pow- erful ship, built. SOS (Save our Souls) adopted as international distresssignal. First submarine, UI, enters service.
1907  :   Finland becomes the first to elect women as MPs. Robert Baden Powell forms Boy Scout Movement. Establishment of Kuomintang by Sun Yat-sen. World’s first working helicopter made.
1908 : Solid helium developed by Dutch scien- tists. Professor Albert Einstein  presents


his ‘Quantum’ theory of light. Jack Jackson (USA) is the first Negro to be- come world heavyweight champion.
1909 : London’s new direct 7,000 mile telegraphic link with India opened. Colour films are screened in public for the first time in Brighton. North Pole conquered by US Commander Robert E. Peary.
1910 : First pure sample of radium isolated by Marie Curie. Death of Leo Tolstoy.
1911 : First wireless messages from the air. King George V crowned “King of the United Kingdom and Emperor of India”. World’s first official airmail flight between Bamrauli and Naini (India). Beginning of the the Chinese Revolution that ended 1000 years of imperial rule. Sun Yat-sen be- comes the first president of the Chinese Republic. Second Nobel Prize awarded to Marie Curie. Ronald Amundsen reaches South Pole.
1912 : Titanic, world’s biggest ship sinks in  North Atlantic.
1913 : Grand Central Station, New York, world’s largest railway station, opened. Neil Bo- hr’s quantum theory of the structure of atoms published. Thomas Edison invents a telephone recorder. Noguchi isolates the virus of rabies.
1914 : Cancer  treated  with  radium successful. Heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife shot and killed in Sarajevo by a student, Garvilo Princip. It served as a catalyst for World War I.
1917 : Russian Revolution. Russia became a re- public. Bolsheviks came to power in Rus- sia.
1918 : US President Wilson enumerates his 14 points. Moscow is made the new capital of Russia. Bolsheviks become the Russian
Communist Party. Tzar Nicholas II and his family massacred.
1919 : Atoms ‘split’ by artificial means for the first time by Professor Ernest Rutherford. First nonstop flight across the Atlantic by Alcock and Brown. Treaty of Versailles signed. First World War ends. Germany de- clared a republic (Weimar).
1920 : League of Nations inaugurated. The Inter- national Court of Justice set up at Hague.
1921    :   First BCGvaccinegivenin France.
1922   :   Arms conference in Washington agrees  to outlaw the use of gas in warfare. BBC formed. Free state of Ireland created.
1923    : Turkey declared a Republic.
1924 : Bacillus causing rabies isolated by the Pas- teur Institute, Paris. Edwin Hubble discov- ers the unknown boundaries of the Milky Way.
1925    :   John Logie Baird perfects television.
1926 : Abdul Azizibn Saud proclaimed Kingofthe Hejaz who named his country Saudi Arabia.
1927 : The Jazz Singer, the first talkie, made. First solo non-stop flight between New York and Paris made by Charles Lindbergh.
1928 : Germ killing mould discovered by Alex- ander Fleming, London. Stalin’s First Five Year Plan.
1929 : Wall Street crash, the biggest financial crisis of the century.
1930 : Pluto, the 9th planet, discovered by Claude Tombaugh. First modern compu- ter designed by Vannevar Bush and his team.
1931    :   Thomas Alva Edison dies.
1932    :   Chadvick discovers the neutron.
1933    : Adolf Hitler, Nazi leader, becomes Chancel-


lor of Germany.
1936 : Spanish Civil War begins. Germany’s “People’s Car” – Volkswagen – launched.
1938    :  Walt Disney’s first feature-length cartoon,
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.
1939 : Spanish Civil War comes to an end. Pact of Steel between Italy and Germany. World War II begins.
1941 :  Birth of modern commercial television.  The Japanese attack Pearl Harbour, bringing USA into World War II.
1944 : DNA discovered. Bretton Woods Confer- ence.
1945  :   Mussolini killed by Italian partisans Hit- ler commits suicide. 50 nations sign the World Security Charger to establish UN. UN Charter signed by 50 countries. Postdam Conference. Little Boy, a Ura- nium-235 fission bomb, dropped over Japanese city Hiroshima, explodes, 570 mts. above ground, instantly killing over 70,000. A 22-kiloton plutonium 239 bomb, Fat Man, dropped over Nagasaki, ex- plodes 510 mts above ground, killing 40,000 immediately. The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are founded.
1946    :  Paris Peace Conference.
1947    :   IMF begins operations.
1948 :  GATT enters into force. New state of Is- rael proclaimed.
1952  : King George VI of UK dies and Elizabeth II becomes Queen. Artificial heart used for the first time in USA. A non-violent campaign against apartheid begins in South Africa.
1953 : China’sfive-yearplanbegins. Hammarskjöld sworn in as UN Secretary- General. Mount Everest conquered by Edmund Hillary and Tensing Norway.
1956    :   Non Alignment Movement founded.
1957 : Agatha Christie’s Mousetrap performs its 1,998th performance. Russia launches a man-made satellite, Sputnik-1.
1958 : US enters space arena, launching Ex- plorer-1.
1959 :  Dalai Lama, fleeing from Tibet reaches In- dia and finds sanctuary. Pictures of the dark side of the moon sent back by Lunik III.
1960 : Sirimavo Bandaranaike sworn in as the world’s first woman Prime Minister in Sri Lanka. John F. Kennedy elected president of USA– youngest man and first Roman Catholic to be elected.
1961 : Inter-planetary space station launched by USSR. Soviet Union’s Yuri Gagarin, be- comes the first man to fly in space. Alan Shephard Jr. becomes the first American in Space. East Germans erect a five foot wall (Berlin Wall). UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld killed in an aircrash.
1962   :   John Glenn becomes the first American  to orbit Earth in ‘Mercury’.
1963 : Valentina Tereshkova (USSR)  becomes first woman in space. Martin Luther King’s immortal “I have a dream speech”. US President John F.Kennedy assassi- nated.
1965 : Singapore recedes from Malaysia to be- come an independent state.
1966 : Luna 9 of USSR makes the first soft lunar landing.
1967 : Apollo I cabin bursts at  the Kennedy Space Centre launch pad killing three.
1968    :   Martin Luther King assassinated.
1969 : Arafat head of PLO. Anglo-French super- sonic airline Concorde introduced. Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin become the first men to set foot on the moon.
1970 : Kingdom of Cambodia becomes the Khmer Republic.


1971 : Vietnam War comes to an end (57,000 Americans lost their lives). Mujibur Rehman declares Bangladesh indepen- dent. Marines-9 orbits Mars (first space- craft to do so).
1973    :   Agreement ending Vietnam War signed.
1974 : U.S President Nixon resigns following the Watergate Scandal. Gerald Ford takes over.
1975  :   Japan’s Junko Tabei becomes first women to scale Everest. Army coup in Bangla- desh. Mujibur Rehman killed.
1977    :   Coup in Pakistan; Bhutto deposed; Gen.
Zia-ul-Haq takes over.
1978 : Louise Brown, the first test tube baby, born inUK.
1979 : Z.A. Bhutto executed. Margaret Thatcher becomes firstwoman Prime Ministerof Brit- ain. SALT II agreement signed by Jimmy Carter and the Soviet leaders.
1981 : The reusable Space Shuttle Columbia launched. TGV, world’s fastest train, makes its inaugural run from Paris to Lyons.
1982    :   Russia’s Venus-13 lands on Venus.
1984 : Dorjei conquers the Everest without oxy- gen.
1985 : The Rainbow Warrior, flagship of ecological group Greenpeace, sinks after explosion in Auckland.
1986 :  US Space Shuttle Challenger explodes af- ter takeoff, killing seven astronaut. Soviet Union’s Mir Space Station launched. Nuclear leak in Chernobyl power station. Ann Bancroft becomes first woman to reach North Pole.
1988 : Pakistan President General  Zia-ul-Haq killed in an air crash. India quells inva- sion of Maldives by sea-borne group. George Bush elected President of USA.
1989  :  Ranasinghe Premadasa  becomes Presi- dent of Sri Lanka. Students in Beijing dem-
onstrate for democratic rights. Chinese troops storm Tienanmen Square and crush the pro-democracy campaign. Aya- tollah Khomeini dies. Demolition of Ber- lin Wall. Velvet Revolution in Czechoslo- vakia.
1990 :  New Zealander, Richard Hadlee, becomes the first cricketer to take 400 test wickets. Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in prison. Iraq invades Kuwait. UN imposes embargo on Iraq. Unification of Germany. Formal end of Cold War.
1991 : Gulf War. Warsaw Pact disbanded. Ku-  wait fully liberated. Khaleeda Zia ap- pointed first woman Prime Minister of Bangladesh. Formal end to the Soviet Union. Commonwealth of Independent states formed.
1992    :   Earth Summit in Rio.
1993 : Bill Clinton new US President. Netherlands becomes the first country to sanction mercy killings. Allan Border betters Gavaskar’s record (10,122 runs). Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa assassi- nated. USA’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) stopped. Maastricht Treaty on Eu- ropean Union comes into effect.
1994 : End of Apartheid in South Africa. The  comet Shoemaker Levy 9 smashes into Ju- piter.
1995 : WTO comes into effect. Austria, Finland and Sweden become new members of EU. Kobe earthquake in Japan kills 4,700 people. DNAcodeoflivingorganismsdeci- phered.
1996 : Gary Kasparov wins chess series against IBM computer Deep Blue. Arafat be- comes President of Palestinian Author- ity.
1997 : British scientists clone a sheep (Polly). Hale Bopp comet comes closest to earth   (200


m.km). Labour Party wins polls in Britain; Tony Blair becomes Prime Minister. Chemi- cal weapons convention takes effect. Brit- ain hands back Hong Kong to China. Mars Pathfinder sends pictures of Mars. Diana, Princess of Wales killed in a car accident.
1998   :   Myanmar celebrates its 50th anniversary of independence. Pope John Paul II visits Cuba.
: Sri Lanka celebrates its 50th anniversary of independence. Communist Manifesto completes 150 years of publication. US scientists produce the world’s first cloned Calf named Mr. Jefferson.
: James Cameron’s Titanic wins 11 Oscar awards.
: India conducts five nuclear tests (three on 11th May and two on 13th May 1998). Pakistan conducts six nuclear test (5 on 28th May and one on 30th May 1998).
:  France win World Cup Football.
: Jose Saramago, the Portuguese novelist win 1998 Nobel prize for literature. Amartya Sen of India wins 1998 Nobel Prize for Economics. John Glenn, 77, the oldest man in space.
1999 : Twelve European countries launch single currency, the Euro.
: The South African Parliament elects Thabo Mbeki, the country’s new Presi- dent.
: The US space shuttle, Columbia, blasts off under the first woman commander Eileen Collins, after two failed attempts.
: The former New Zealand Prime Minister, Mike Moore, takes over as the head of the World Trade Organisation.
: S.R. Nathan, sworn in as Singapore’s sixth president.
:   The 1999 Nobel Prize for Literature goes to
the German Novelist, Günter Grass.
: China celebrates the 50th anniversary of Communist rule
: Army takes over in Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif sacked and confined to House.
:   World population turns 6 billion.
: The US formally transfers the control over the Panama Canal to Panama.
2000 : Ananova, the world’s first virtual news- reader, makes her debut on the internet at www.ananova.com.
: At the NPT conference in the United Na- tions, USA, Russia, France, Britain and China pledge to eliminate atomic weap- ons, without setting a time table.
: An e-mail virus I Love You created by a Filipino creates wide spread damage to computer systems across the world.
: Fiji’s President declares a state of emer- gency after a group of gunmen led by George Speight seize the nation’s first eth- nic Indian Prime Minister, Mahendra Pal Chaudhry and his Cabinet colleagues and MPs  as hostages.
: The North Korean leader, Kim Jong Il and the South Korean President, Kim Dae Jung meet at the North Korean capital Pyongyang. They decide to work for the unification of the Korean Peninsula.
: The two-day G-15 summit begins in Cairo (Egypt). It has now 19 members with the inclusion of Columbia and Iran.
: The International Space Station linked up smoothly with the Russian-made Zvezda control module. Zvezda is the first mod- ule built solely by Russians.
:  George Speight, the leader of the coup  in Fiji, is arrested.
: The US astronomers announce that they have detected 10 new planets outside the


solar system. It brings the total number of planets circling other stars, so-called exoplanets, to 50.
: British Airways suspends Concorde operations.
: Carl Banks, the Disney Illustrator and crea- tor of Donald Duck passes away.
: Tuvalu, a Pacific island state admitted to the United Nations as its 189th member in its first session of the New Millennium in New York (USA).
: French voters approve a referendum on shortening the Presidential term to five years.
: Russia recognises Yugoslav opposition leader, Vojislav Kostunica’s, historic presi- dential election victory over Slobodan Milosevic.
: Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the world’s first elected woman Prime Minister, passes away.
: Gao Xingjian, a dissident Chinese novel- ist and playwright settled in France who left China in 1987 to settle in France, wins the Nobel Prize for Literature for 2000 for his work that has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama.
: Kim Dae Jung, South Korean President, selected for the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize for his work towards peace and reconcili- ation with North Korea that led to a ground breaking summit with his North Korean counterpart.
: The Guinness Book of World Records,  sets a new record of its own selling seven million copies of its first edition of the new century.
: Hillary Clinton, wife of US President Bill Clinton, wins the US Senate seat from New York. Thus, she becomes the first wife of a  President  in  American  history to be
elected to the Senate.
: Margaret Atwood of Canada wins the coveted Booker Prize 2000 for her novel, The Blind Assassin.
: Netherlands becomes the first country to legalise euthanasia, (the mercy killing).
: Nawaz Sharif pardoned off and exiled to Saudi Arabia.
: George W. Bush declared elected as the 43rd President of United States.
2001    :   The 15-year-old Mir Space Station aban- doned
: ANDi the world’s first genetically modi- fied monkey, created.
: The radical Islamic Taliban regime in Af- ghanistan demolishes two huge statues of the Buddha at Bamiyan.
: Dennis Tito of the United States becomes the first person to tour the  space.
: Denise Quinones August chosen as the 50th Miss Universe at a function in Bayamon in Puerto Rico.
: The Organisation of African Union (OAU) becomes African Union (AU).
: Gen. Pervez Musharraf takes over as the President of Pakistan.
: United Nations (UN) Secretary General and V.S. Naipaul win the Nobel Prize For peace and Literature respectively for 2001.
2002    :   Euthanasia or mercy killing  comes into force in Netherlands.
: Robert Mugabe elected President of Zimbabwe.
: Xanana Gusmao, the independence leader of East Timor, elected President of the is- land nation.
: Mark Shuttleworth of South Africa be- comes the second space  tourist.


: Switzerland  becomes the 190th member of UNO.
: Hamid Karzai elected President of Af- ghanistan.
: The International criminal Court (ICC) starts functioning in the Hague (Nether- lands)
: The UN Earth Summit held in Johannes- burg (South Africa)
: East Timor joins as the 191st member of the United Nations.
: The 17th Commonwealth Games held in Manchester(U.K)
: The 14th Asian Games held in Busan (South Korea)
:   Miss Asra Akin crowned as Miss World.
: SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak in China and spreads all over world killing thousands.
2003 : The space shuttle Columbia perished in space. Seven astronauts including Dr. Kalpana Chawla died (February).
: The USA and Britain jointly launch Operation Iraqi Freedom to liberate Iraq from Sadam Hussain, who build up weap- ons of mass destruction.
2004    :  Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars.
: 28th Summer Olympics was held in Ath- ens in Greece. The USA secured first place, China stood at second. India won only one silver.
: Bomb attacks on four Madrid commuter trains kill 191 and injure hundreds more
: Photos of US soldiers allegedly abusing Iraqi detainees in Abu Gharaib prison emerge.
: A team of Russian scientists and another of US scientists report the discovery of two new chemical elements. These are el- ements 113, given the temporary name Ununtrium (Uut) and element 115 desig- nated Ununpentium (Uup)
: The Iraqi special Tribunal holds the first hearing in the trial of Saddham Hussian.
: Afghanistan holds its first ever presiden- tial election.
: Scientists discover a new tiny species of human that lived in Indonesia.
: Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat dies in Paris.
2005 : NASA’s unmanned. Probe Deep Impact collided with the comet Tempel-1 on June 3, 2005.
G-8 Summit was held at Gleneagles, Re- sort, Scotland on July 6-8, 2005
: Muhammed Abbas is sworn in as Pales- tinian Authority President.
: Taiwan and China agree Temporarily lift Taipe’s five - decade ban on direct flights between the two rivals.
: Former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafikal- Hariri is assassinated in a car bombing in central Beirut close to the harbour.
: The trial of pop star Michael Joseph Jackson gets underway in Santa Maria over a year since his arrest on charges of child molestation.
: American aviator Steve Fosset completes the first solo fight around the world with- out refuelling and lands his jet plane in Salina Kansas.
: Israel open the world’s largest Holocast museum on Mount Herzi in Jerusalem to commemorate the six million Jews exter- minated by the Nazis.
: Jalal Talabani is sworn in Iraqi President making him the first non-Arab head of an Arab nation. Shia leader Irabhim Jaafari is nominated as the Prime Minister.
: Pope John Paul II, the ‘‘Peoples Pope’’ or the ‘‘Travelling Pope’’ is laid to rest in the cryst of St. Peters Baslica in Vatican.
: Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger of Germany is elected 265 th Pope and is to be known as Benedict XVI.


: Albanian poet and novelist Ismail Kadare is named the winner of the Man Booker International Prize, a brand new laurel for the world’s finest writers.
: Kuwaits first woman Prime Minister Maasuma al Mubarak, takes out in Parlia- ment.
: Junichiro Koizumi is re-elected as Japa- nese Primier by the new House of Repre- sentatives at a special session in Tokyo.
: The IAEA and its chief Muhammed El Baradei get the Nobel Peace Prize for their work in Stopping the spread of nuclear weapons.
:   The Dhaka Declaration decides to set up a SAARC Poverty Alleviation Fund and to declare 2006 - 2015 the SAARC decade of Poverty Alleviation.
: The world’s first facial transplantation is done on a French woman Isabella Dinoire in Amiens.
2006   :   US space probe ‘Stardust’ returns to   earth carrying precious samples of dust from stars and comets.
: Chile elects Michaelle Bachelet to be its first woman President.
:  NASA launches the first space mission  to Pluto, as the New Horizons spacecraft is hurled on a 9-year 4.5 b - KM journey.
: 35th summit of World Economic Forum opens, in Davos, Switzerland.
: French actress Eva Green chosen as the new James Bond girl.
: Jamaica to have Portia Simpson Miller as Prime Minister, the first woman head of the state.
: Oscar award announced : ‘Crush’ is the best film, Philip Seymour Hoffman - best actor, Reese Witherspoon - best actress and Ang Lee - Best Director.
: Lakshmi Mittal’s 18.6 billion euro takeo- ver bid for Arcelor is blocked by a change in Luxemburg corporate law.
:    Solar eclipse observe in Turkey.
: Kavya Vishwanathan’s novel ‘How Opal Mehta Got kissed, Got wild and got a Life’ being recalled from store shelves, after she admits copying passages fr om another book.
: Britain replaces US as the publisher of most new books in English.
: Earthquake measuring 6.2 rocks Yogyakarta in Java killing about three thousand as per first reports.
: J.K. Rowling voted the greatest living British writer in a survey, followed by Terry Pratchett, Ian Mcewan, Salman Rushdie, Kazuo Ishiguro and Philip Pull- man.
: World’s oldest tortoise Harriet dies at 176 years in Australia.
:  Montenegro becomes the 192th member of United Nations
: Qinghai - Tibet railway the world’s high- est and longest highland railway becomes operational.
: First world summit of religious leaders in Moscow is attended by 200 representa- tives from 40 countries.
: Italy beats France 5-3 to win World Cup Football.
:    Kiran Desai wins the Booker Prize.
: Bhutan’s king Jigme Singye Wangchuk abdicates the throne after a 34 year reign in favour of his son crown prince Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk.
: The former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is hanged to death in Baghdad for the 1982 killing of 148 persons of Dujail town, three years after being captured by the US forces.